uva10013,

## Problem:

 Super long sums

## The Problem

The creators of a new programming language D++ have found out that whatever limit for SuperLongInt type they make, sometimes programmers need to operate even larger numbers. A limit of 1000 digits is so small... You have to find the sum of two numbers with maximal size of 1.000.000 digits.

## The Input

The first line of a input file is an integer N, then a blank line followed by N input blocks. The first line of an each input block contains a single number M (1<=M<=1000000) — the length of the integers (in order to make their lengths equal, some leading zeroes can be added). It is followed by these integers written in columns. That is, the next M lines contain two digits each, divided by a space. Each of the two given integers is not less than 1, and the length of their sum does not exceed M.
There is a blank line between input blocks.

## The Output

There is a blank line between output blocks.

## Sample Input

2

4
0 4
4 2
6 8
3 7

3
3 0
7 9
2 8


## Sample Output

4750

470

uva00673,

# Parentheses Balance

You are given a string consisting of parentheses () and []. A string of this type is said to be correct:
(a)
if it is the empty string
(b)
if A and B are correct, AB is correct,
(c)
if A is correct, (A) and [A] is correct.
Write a program that takes a sequence of strings of this type and check their correctness. Your program can assume that the maximum string length is 128.

## Input

The file contains a positive integer n and a sequence of n strings of parentheses () and [], one string a line.

## Output

A sequence of Yes or No on the output file.

## Sample Input

3
([])
(([()])))
([()[]()])()


## Sample Output

Yes
No
Yes


Miguel Revilla
2000-08-14

uva00548,

# Tree

You are to determine the value of the leaf node in a given binary tree that is the terminal node of a path of least value from the root of the binary tree to any leaf. The value of a path is the sum of values of nodes along that path.

## Input

The input file will contain a description of the binary tree given as the inorder and postorder traversal sequences of that tree. Your program will read two line (until end of file) from the input file. The first line will contain the sequence of values associated with an inorder traversal of the tree and the second line will contain the sequence of values associated with a postorder traversal of the tree. All values will be different, greater than zero and less than 10000. You may assume that no binary tree will have more than 10000 nodes or less than 1 node.

## Output

For each tree description you should output the value of the leaf node of a path of least value. In the case of multiple paths of least value you should pick the one with the least value on the terminal node.

## Sample Input

3 2 1 4 5 7 6
3 1 2 5 6 7 4
7 8 11 3 5 16 12 18
8 3 11 7 16 18 12 5
255
255


## Sample Output

1
3
255


Miguel A. Revilla
1999-01-11

### UVa_00112_Tree_Summing.cpp

uva00112, poj1145,

# Tree Summing

## Background

LISP was one of the earliest high-level programming languages and, with FORTRAN, is one of the oldest languages currently being used. Lists, which are the fundamental data structures in LISP, can easily be adapted to represent other important data structures such as trees.
This problem deals with determining whether binary trees represented as LISP S-expressions possess a certain property.

## The Problem

Given a binary tree of integers, you are to write a program that determines whether there exists a root-to-leaf path whose nodes sum to a specified integer. For example, in the tree shown below there are exactly four root-to-leaf paths. The sums of the paths are 27, 22, 26, and 18. Binary trees are represented in the input file as LISP S-expressions having the following form.

empty tree    ::=    ()

tree    ::=    empty tree (integer tree tree)


The tree diagrammed above is represented by the expression (5 (4 (11 (7 () ()) (2 () ()) ) ()) (8 (13 () ()) (4 () (1 () ()) ) ) )
Note that with this formulation all leaves of a tree are of the form (integer () () )
Since an empty tree has no root-to-leaf paths, any query as to whether a path exists whose sum is a specified integer in an empty tree must be answered negatively.

## The Input

The input consists of a sequence of test cases in the form of integer/tree pairs. Each test case consists of an integer followed by one or more spaces followed by a binary tree formatted as an S-expression as described above. All binary tree S-expressions will be valid, but expressions may be spread over several lines and may contain spaces. There will be one or more test cases in an input file, and input is terminated by end-of-file.

## The Output

There should be one line of output for each test case (integer/tree pair) in the input file. For each pair I,T (I represents the integer, Trepresents the tree) the output is the string yes if there is a root-to-leaf path in T whose sum is I and no if there is no path in T whose sum isI.

## Sample Input

22 (5(4(11(7()())(2()()))()) (8(13()())(4()(1()()))))
20 (5(4(11(7()())(2()()))()) (8(13()())(4()(1()()))))
10 (3
(2 (4 () () )
(8 () () ) )
(1 (6 () () )
(4 () () ) ) )
5 ()

## Sample Output

yes
no
yes
no

uva10878,

## Problem:

Decode the tape
Time Limit: 1 second

 "Machines take me by surprise with great frequency."
Alan Turing
Your boss has just unearthed a roll of old computer tapes. The tapes have holes in them and might contain some sort of useful information. It falls to you to figure out what is written on them.
Input
The input will contain one tape.
Output
Output the message that is written on the tape.
 Sample Input Sample Output ___________ | o . o| | o . | | ooo . o| | ooo .o o| | oo o. o| | oo . oo| | oo o. oo| | o . | | oo . o | | ooo . o | | oo o.ooo| | ooo .ooo| | oo o.oo | | o . | | oo .oo | | oo o.ooo| | oooo. | | o . | | oo o. o | | ooo .o o| | oo o.o o| | ooo . | | ooo . oo| | o . | | oo o.ooo| | ooo .oo | | oo .o o| | ooo . o | | o . | | ooo .o | | oo o. | | oo .o o| | o . | | oo o.o | | oo . o| | oooo. o | | oooo. o| | o . | | oo .o | | oo o.ooo| | oo .ooo| | o o.oo | | o. o | ___________  A quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. 

Problemsetter: Igor Naverniouk
Special thanks: BSD games ppt.

### UVa_10361_Automatic_Poetry.cpp

uva10361, poj1917,

## Problem:

Automatic Poetry
Input: standard input
Output: standard output
Time Limit: 2 seconds
Memory Limit: 32 MB

“Oh God”, Lara Croft exclaims, “it’s one of these dumb riddles again!”

In Tomb Raider XIV, Lara is, as ever, gunning her way through ancient Egyptian pyramids, prehistoric caves and medival hallways. Now she is standing in front of some important Germanic looking doorway and has to solve a linguistic riddle to pass. As usual, the riddle is not very intellectually challenging.

This time, the riddle involves poems containing a “Schuttelreim”. An example of a Schuttelreim is the following short poem:

Ein Kind halt seinen Schnabel nur,
wenn es hangt an der Nabelschnur.

/*German contestants please forgive me. I had to modify something as they were not appearing correctly in plain text format*/

A Schuttelreim seems to be a typical German invention. The funny thing about this strange type of poetry is that if somebody gives you the first line and the beginning of the second one, you can complete the poem yourself. Well, even a computer can do that, and your task is to write a program which completes them automatically. This will help Lara concentrate on the “action” part of Tomb Raider and not on the “intellectual” part.

### Input

The input will begin with a line containing a single number n. After this line follow n pairs of lines containing Schuttelreims. The first line of each pair will be of the form
s1<s2>s3<s4>s5

where the si are possibly empty, strings of lowercase characters or blanks. The second line will be a string of lowercase characters or blanks ending with three dots “...”. Lines will we at most 100 characters long.

### Sample Input

3
ein kind haelt seinen <schn>abel <n>ur
wenn es haengt an der ...
weil wir zu spaet zur <>oma <k>amen
verpassten wir das ...
<d>u <b>ist
...

### Sample Output

ein kind haelt seinen schnabel nur
wenn es haengt an der nabel schnur
weil wir zu spaet zur oma kamen
verpassten wir das koma amen
du bist
bu dist

TUD Programming Contest

### UVa_00537_Artificial_Intelligence.cpp

uva00537, poj2256,

# Artificial Intelligence?

Physics teachers in high school often think that problems given as text are more demanding than pure computations. After all, the pupils have to read and understand the problem first!
So they don't state a problem like U=10V, I=5A, P=?" but rather like You have an electrical circuit that contains a battery with a voltage of U=10V and a light-bulb. There's an electrical current of I=5A through the bulb. Which power is generated in the bulb?".
However, half of the pupils just don't pay attention to the text anyway. They just extract from the text what is given: U=10V, I=5A. Then they think: Which formulae do I know? Ah yes, P=U*I. Therefore P=10V*5A=500W. Finished."
OK, this doesn't always work, so these pupils are usually not the top scorers in physics tests. But at least this simple algorithm is usually good enough to pass the class. (Sad but true.)
Today we will check if a computer can pass a high school physics test. We will concentrate on the P-U-I type problems first. That means, problems in which two of power, voltage and current are given and the third is wanted.

Your job is to write a program that reads such a text problem and solves it according to the simple algorithm given above.

## Input

The first line of the input file will contain the number of test cases.Each test case will consist of one line containing exactly two data fields and some additional arbitrary words. A data field will be of the form I=xAU=xV or P=xW, where x is a real number.
Directly before the unit (AV or W) one of the prefixes m (milli), k (kilo) and M (Mega) may also occur. To summarize it: Data fields adhere to the following grammar:

DataField ::= Concept '=' RealNumber [Prefix] Unit
Concept   ::= 'P' | 'U' | 'I'
Prefix    ::= 'm' | 'k' | 'M'
Unit      ::= 'W' | 'V' | 'A'


• The equal sign (=') will never occur in an other context than within a data field.
• There is no whitespace (tabs,blanks) inside a data field.
• Either P and UP and I, or U and I will be given.

## Output

For each test case, print three lines:
• a line saying Problem #k" where k is the number of the test case
• a line giving the solution (voltage, power or current, dependent on what was given), written without a prefix and with two decimal places as shown in the sample output
• a blank line

## Sample Input

3
If the voltage is U=200V and the current is I=4.5A, which power is generated?
A light-bulb yields P=100W and the voltage is U=220V. Compute the current, please.
bla bla bla lightning strike I=2A bla bla bla P=2.5MW bla bla voltage?


## Sample Output

Problem #1
P=900.00W

Problem #2
I=0.45A

Problem #3
U=1250000.00V


Miguel A. Revilla
1999-01-11

## Friday, April 22, 2011

### UVa_00409_Excuses_Excuses.cpp

uva00409, poj1598,

# Excuses, Excuses!

Judge Ito is having a problem with people subpoenaed for jury duty giving rather lame excuses in order to avoid serving. In order to reduce the amount of time required listening to goofy excuses, Judge Ito has asked that you write a program that will search for a list of keywords in a list of excuses identifying lame excuses. Keywords can be matched in an excuse regardless of case.

## Input

Input to your program will consist of multiple sets of data.

• Line 1 of each set will contain exactly two integers. The first number ( ) defines the number of keywords to be used in the search. The second number ( ) defines the number of excuses in the set to be searched.
• Lines 2 through K+1 each contain exactly one keyword.
• Lines K+2 through K+1+E each contain exactly one excuse.
• All keywords in the keyword list will contain only contiguous lower case alphabetic characters of length L ( ) and will occupy columns 1 through L in the input line.
• All excuses can contain any upper or lower case alphanumeric character, a space, or any of the following punctuation marks [SPMamp".,!?&] not including the square brackets and will not exceed 70 characters in length.
• Excuses will contain at least 1 non-space character.

## Output

For each input set, you are to print the worst excuse(s) from the list.

• The worst excuse(s) is/are defined as the excuse(s) which contains the largest number of incidences of keywords.
• If a keyword occurs more than once in an excuse, each occurrance is considered a separate incidence.
• A keyword occurs" in an excuse if and only if it exists in the string in contiguous form and is delimited by the beginning or end of the line or any non-alphabetic character or a space.
For each set of input, you are to print a single line with the number of the set immediately after the string Excuse Set #". (See the Sample Output). The following line(s) is/are to contain the worst excuse(s) one per line exactly as read in. If there is more than one worst excuse, you may print them in any order.

After each set of output, you should print a blank line.

## Sample Input

5 3
dog
ate
homework
canary
died
My dog ate my homework.
Can you believe my dog died after eating my canary... AND MY HOMEWORK?
This excuse is so good that it contain 0 keywords.
6 5
superhighway
crazy
thermonuclear
bedroom
war
building
I am having a superhighway built in my bedroom.
I am actually crazy.
1234567890.....,,,,,0987654321?????!!!!!!
There was a thermonuclear war!
I ate my dog, my canary, and my homework ... note outdated keywords?

## Sample Output

Excuse Set #1
Can you believe my dog died after eating my canary... AND MY HOMEWORK?

Excuse Set #2
I am having a superhighway built in my bedroom.
There was a thermonuclear war!

uva10815,

## Problem:

 Problem B: Andy's First Dictionary Time limit: 3 seconds Andy, 8, has a dream - he wants to produce his very own dictionary. This is not an easy task for him, as the number of words that he knows is, well, not quite enough. Instead of thinking up all the words himself, he has a briliant idea. From his bookshelf he would pick one of his favourite story books, from which he would copy out all the distinct words. By arranging the words in alphabetical order, he is done! Of course, it is a really time-consuming job, and this is where a computer program is helpful.
You are asked to write a program that lists all the different words in the input text. In this problem, a word is defined as a consecutive sequence of alphabets, in upper and/or lower case. Words with only one letter are also to be considered. Furthermore, your program must be CaSe InSeNsItIvE. For example, words like "Apple", "apple" or "APPLE" must be considered the same.

## Input

The input file is a text with no more than 5000 lines. An input line has at most 200 characters. Input is terminated by EOF.

## Output

Your output should give a list of different words that appears in the input text, one in a line. The words should all be in lower case, sorted in alphabetical order. You can be sure that he number of distinct words in the text does not exceed 5000.

## Sample Input

Adventures in Disneyland

Two blondes were going to Disneyland when they came to a fork in the

So they went home.


## Sample Output

a
blondes
came
disneyland
fork
going
home
in
left
sign
so
the
they
to
two
went
were
when

poj2623,

## Problem:

Sequence Median
 Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 65536K Total Submissions: 11187 Accepted: 3201
Description
Given a sequence of N nonnegative integers. Let's define the median of such sequence. If N is odd the median is the element with stands in the middle of the sequence after it is sorted. One may notice that in this case the median has position (N+1)/2 in sorted sequence if sequence elements are numbered starting with 1. If N is even then the median is the semi-sum of the two "middle" elements of sorted sequence. I.e. semi-sum of the elements in positions N/2 and (N/2)+1 of sorted sequence. But original sequence might be unsorted.

Your task is to write program to find the median of given sequence.
Input
The first line of input contains the only integer number N - the length of the sequence. Sequence itself follows in subsequent lines, one number in a line. The length of the sequence lies in the range from 1 to 250000. Each element of the sequence is a positive integer not greater than 2^32 - 1 inclusive.
Output
You should print the value of the median with exactly one digit after decimal point.
Sample Input
4
3
6
4
5

Sample Output
4.5
Hint
Huge input,scanf is recommended.
Source
Ural Collegiate Programming Contest 1998

poj3094,

## Problem:

Quicksum
 Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 65536K Total Submissions: 8505 Accepted: 5935
Description
A checksum is an algorithm that scans a packet of data and returns a single number. The idea is that if the packet is changed, the checksum will also change, so checksums are often used for detecting transmission errors, validating document contents, and in many other situations where it is necessary to detect undesirable changes in data.
For this problem, you will implement a checksum algorithm called Quicksum. A Quicksum packet allows only uppercase letters and spaces. It always begins and ends with an uppercase letter. Otherwise, spaces and letters can occur in any combination, including consecutive spaces.
A Quicksum is the sum of the products of each character's position in the packet times the character's value. A space has a value of zero, while letters have a value equal to their position in the alphabet. So, A=1, B=2, etc., through Z=26. Here are example Quicksum calculations for the packets "ACM" and "MID CENTRAL":
        ACM: 1*1  + 2*3 + 3*13 = 46

MID CENTRAL: 1*13 + 2*9 + 3*4 + 4*0 + 5*3 + 6*5 + 7*14 + 8*20 + 9*18 + 10*1 + 11*12 = 650
Input
The input consists of one or more packets followed by a line containing only # that signals the end of the input. Each packet is on a line by itself, does not begin or end with a space, and contains from 1 to 255 characters.
Output
For each packet, output its Quicksum on a separate line in the output.
Sample Input
ACM
MID CENTRAL
REGIONAL PROGRAMMING CONTEST
ACN
A C M
ABC
BBC
#
Sample Output
46
650
4690
49
75
14
15
Source
Mid-Central USA 2006

uva10071,

## Problem:

Back to High School Physics
Input: standard input
Output: standard output

A particle has initial velocity and constant acceleration. If its velocity after certain time is v then what will its displacement be in twice of that time?

Input
The input will contain two integers in each line. Each line makes one set of input. These two integers denote the value of v (-100 <= v <= 100) and t(0<=t<= 200) ( t means at the time the particle gains that velocity)

Output
For each line of input print a single integer in one line denoting the displacement in double of that time.

Sample Input
0 0
5 12

Sample Output
0
120
___________________________________________________________________________________
Shahriar Manzoor

### UVa_00101_The_Blocks_Problem.cpp

poj1208, uva00101,

# The Blocks Problem

## Background

Many areas of Computer Science use simple, abstract domains for both analytical and empirical studies. For example, an early AI study of planning and robotics (STRIPS) used a block world in which a robot arm performed tasks involving the manipulation of blocks.In this problem you will model a simple block world under certain rules and constraints. Rather than determine how to achieve a specified state, you will program'' a robotic arm to respond to a limited set of commands.

## The Problem

The problem is to parse a series of commands that instruct a robot arm in how to manipulate blocks that lie on a flat table. Initially there are n blocks on the table (numbered from 0 to n-1) with block bi adjacent to block bi+1 for all as shown in the diagram below: Figure: Initial Blocks World

The valid commands for the robot arm that manipulates blocks are:
• move a onto bwhere a and b are block numbers, puts block a onto block b after returning any blocks that are stacked on top of blocks a and b to their initial positions.
• move a over bwhere a and b are block numbers, puts block a onto the top of the stack containing block b, after returning any blocks that are stacked on top of block a to their initial positions.
• pile a onto bwhere a and b are block numbers, moves the pile of blocks consisting of block a, and any blocks that are stacked above block a, onto block b. All blocks on top of block b are moved to their initial positions prior to the pile taking place. The blocks stacked above block a retain their order when moved.
• pile a over bwhere a and b are block numbers, puts the pile of blocks consisting of block a, and any blocks that are stacked above block a, onto the top of the stack containing block b. The blocks stacked above block a retain their original order when moved.
• quitterminates manipulations in the block world.
Any command in which a = b or in which a and b are in the same stack of blocks is an illegal command. All illegal commands should be ignored and should have no affect on the configuration of blocks.

## The Input

The input begins with an integer n on a line by itself representing the number of blocks in the block world. You may assume that 0 < n < 25.The number of blocks is followed by a sequence of block commands, one command per line. Your program should process all commands until the quit command is encountered.
You may assume that all commands will be of the form specified above. There will be no syntactically incorrect commands.

## The Output

The output should consist of the final state of the blocks world. Each original block position numbered i ( where n is the number of blocks) should appear followed immediately by a colon. If there is at least a block on it, the colon must be followed by one space, followed by a list of blocks that appear stacked in that position with each block number separated from other block numbers by a space. Don't put any trailing spaces on a line.
There should be one line of output for each block position (i.e., n lines of output where n is the integer on the first line of input).

## Sample Input

10
move 9 onto 1
move 8 over 1
move 7 over 1
move 6 over 1
pile 8 over 6
pile 8 over 5
move 2 over 1
move 4 over 9
quit


## Sample Output

 0: 0
1: 1 9 2 4
2:
3: 3
4:
5: 5 8 7 6
6:
7:
8:
9:


Miguel Revilla
2000-04-06

## Thursday, April 14, 2011

### UVa_10810_Ultra-QuickSort.cpp

poj2299, uva10810,

## Problem B: Ultra-QuickSort

In this problem, you have to analyze a particular sorting algorithm. The algorithm processes a sequence of n distinct integers by swapping two adjacent sequence elements until the sequence is sorted in ascending order. For the input sequence
9 1 0 5 4 ,
Ultra-QuickSort produces the output
0 1 4 5 9 .
Your task is to determine how many swap operations Ultra-QuickSort needs to perform in order to sort a given input sequence.The input contains several test cases. Every test case begins with a line that contains a single integer n < 500,000 -- the length of the input sequence. Each of the the following n lines contains a single integer 0 ≤ a[i] ≤ 999,999,999, the i-th input sequence element. Input is terminated by a sequence of length n = 0. This sequence must not be processed.
For every input sequence, your program prints a single line containing an integer number op, the minimum number of swap operations necessary to sort the given input sequence.

### Sample Input

5
9
1
0
5
4
3
1
2
3
0

### Output for Sample Input

6
0

Stefan B�ttcher

## Wednesday, April 13, 2011

### Problem Rank List

This list is generated based on igor's probs.txt file, which is posted on his blog.
It's generated in 2006, but it's still very useful.
Thanks for sharing.

100     63373      The 3n + 1 problem
102     15736      Ecological Bin Packing
10071     12271      Back to High School Physics
105     11471      The Skyline Problem
10055     11238      Hashmat the Brave Warrior
10038     10401      Jolly Jumpers
10013      9934      Super long sums
136      9906      Ugly Numbers
101      9831      The Blocks Problem
272      9830      TEX Quotes
108      9210      Maximum Sum
591      9066      Box of Bricks
10189      9066      Minesweeper
458      8933      The Decoder
495      7419      Fibonacci Freeze
488      7290      Triangle Wave
10035      7188      Primary Arithmetic
128      6865      Software CRC
382      6480      Perfection
113      6419      Power of Cryptography
673      6379      Parentheses Balance
706      6345      LCD Display
406      6312      Prime Cuts
10062      6178      Tell me the frequencies!
299      6168      Train Swapping
10004      6034      Bicoloring
10110      5989      Light, More Light
103      5917      Stacking Boxes
10082      5815      WERTYU
494      5808      Kindergarten Counting Game
160      5807      Factors and Factorials
543      5764      Goldbach's Conjecture
583      5736      Prime Factors
369      5643      Combinations
264      5473      Count on Cantor
483      5355      Word Scramble

poj1663,

## Problem:

Number Steps
 Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 10817 Accepted: 5763
Description
Starting from point (0,0) on a plane, we have written all non-negative integers 0,1,2, ... as shown in the figure. For example, 1, 2, and 3 has been written at points (1,1), (2,0), and (3, 1) respectively and this pattern has continued. You are to write a program that reads the coordinates of a point (x, y), and writes the number (if any) that has been written at that point. (x, y) coordinates in the input are in the range 0...5000.
Input
The first line of the input is N, the number of test cases for this problem. In each of the N following lines, there is x, and y representing the coordinates (x, y) of a point.
Output
For each point in the input, write the number written at that point or write No Number if there is none.
Sample Input
3
4 2
6 6
3 4
Sample Output
6
12
No Number
Source
Tehran 2000

### UVa_00442_Matrix_Chain_Multiplication.cpp

poj2246, uva00442,

# Matrix Chain Multiplication

Suppose you have to evaluate an expression like A*B*C*D*E where A,B,C,D and E are matrices. Since matrix multiplication is associative, the order in which multiplications are performed is arbitrary. However, the number of elementary multiplications needed strongly depends on the evaluation order you choose.

For example, let A be a 50*10 matrix, B a 10*20 matrix and C a 20*5 matrix. There are two different strategies to compute A*B*C, namely (A*B)*C and A*(B*C).
The first one takes 15000 elementary multiplications, but the second one only 3500.

Your job is to write a program that determines the number of elementary multiplications needed for a given evaluation strategy.

## Input Specification

Input consists of two parts: a list of matrices and a list of expressions.
The first line of the input file contains one integer n ( ), representing the number of matrices in the first part. The next n lines each contain one capital letter, specifying the name of the matrix, and two integers, specifying the number of rows and columns of the matrix.

The second part of the input file strictly adheres to the following syntax (given in EBNF):

SecondPart = Line { Line }
Line       = Expression
Expression = Matrix | "(" Expression Expression ")"
Matrix     = "A" | "B" | "C" | ... | "X" | "Y" | "Z"

## Output Specification

For each expression found in the second part of the input file, print one line containing the word "error" if evaluation of the expression leads to an error due to non-matching matrices. Otherwise print one line containing the number of elementary multiplications needed to evaluate the expression in the way specified by the parentheses.

## Sample Input

9
A 50 10
B 10 20
C 20 5
D 30 35
E 35 15
F 15 5
G 5 10
H 10 20
I 20 25
A
B
C
(AA)
(AB)
(AC)
(A(BC))
((AB)C)
(((((DE)F)G)H)I)
(D(E(F(G(HI)))))
((D(EF))((GH)I))

## Sample Output

0
0
0
error
10000
error
3500
15000
40500
47500
15125

uva10003,

# Cutting Sticks

You have to cut a wood stick into pieces. The most affordable company, The Analog Cutting Machinery, Inc. (ACM), charges money according to the length of the stick being cut. Their procedure of work requires that they only make one cut at a time.It is easy to notice that different selections in the order of cutting can led to different prices. For example, consider a stick of length 10 meters that has to be cut at 2, 4 and 7 meters from one end. There are several choices. One can be cutting first at 2, then at 4, then at 7. This leads to a price of 10 + 8 + 6 = 24 because the first stick was of 10 meters, the resulting of 8 and the last one of 6. Another choice could be cutting at 4, then at 2, then at 7. This would lead to a price of 10 + 4 + 6 = 20, which is a better price.
Your boss trusts your computer abilities to find out the minimum cost for cutting a given stick.

## Input

The input will consist of several input cases. The first line of each test case will contain a positive number l that represents the length of the stick to be cut. You can assume l < 1000. The next line will contain the number n (n < 50) of cuts to be made.The next line consists of n positive numbers ci ( 0 < ci < l) representing the places where the cuts have to be done, given in strictly increasing order.
An input case with l = 0 will represent the end of the input.

## Output

You have to print the cost of the optimal solution of the cutting problem, that is the minimum cost of cutting the given stick. Format the output as shown below.

## Sample Input

100
3
25 50 75
10
4
4 5 7 8
0


## Sample Output

The minimum cutting is 200.
The minimum cutting is 22.


Miguel Revilla
2000-08-21

uva00116,

# Unidirectional TSP

## Background

Problems that require minimum paths through some domain appear in many different areas of computer science. For example, one of the constraints in VLSI routing problems is minimizing wire length. The Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) -- finding whether all the cities in a salesperson's route can be visited exactly once with a specified limit on travel time -- is one of the canonical examples of an NP-complete problem; solutions appear to require an inordinate amount of time to generate, but are simple to check.
This problem deals with finding a minimal path through a grid of points while traveling only from left to right.

## The Problem

Given an matrix of integers, you are to write a program that computes a path of minimal weight. A path starts anywhere in column 1 (the first column) and consists of a sequence of steps terminating in column n (the last column). A step consists of traveling from columni to column i+1 in an adjacent (horizontal or diagonal) row. The first and last rows (rows 1 and m) of a matrix are considered adjacent, i.e., the matrix wraps'' so that it represents a horizontal cylinder. Legal steps are illustrated below. The weight of a path is the sum of the integers in each of the n cells of the matrix that are visited.
For example, two slightly different matrices are shown below (the only difference is the numbers in the bottom row). The minimal path is illustrated for each matrix. Note that the path for the matrix on the right takes advantage of the adjacency property of the first and last rows.

## The Input

The input consists of a sequence of matrix specifications. Each matrix specification consists of the row and column dimensions in that order on a line followed by integers where m is the row dimension and n is the column dimension. The integers appear in the input in row major order, i.e., the first n integers constitute the first row of the matrix, the second n integers constitute the second row and so on. The integers on a line will be separated from other integers by one or more spaces. Note: integers are not restricted to being positive. There will be one or more matrix specifications in an input file. Input is terminated by end-of-file.
For each specification the number of rows will be between 1 and 10 inclusive; the number of columns will be between 1 and 100 inclusive. No path's weight will exceed integer values representable using 30 bits.

## The Output

Two lines should be output for each matrix specification in the input file, the first line represents a minimal-weight path, and the second line is the cost of a minimal path. The path consists of a sequence of n integers (separated by one or more spaces) representing the rows that constitute the minimal path. If there is more than one path of minimal weight the path that is lexicographically smallest should be output.

## Sample Input

5 6
3 4 1 2 8 6
6 1 8 2 7 4
5 9 3 9 9 5
8 4 1 3 2 6
3 7 2 8 6 4
5 6
3 4 1 2 8 6
6 1 8 2 7 4
5 9 3 9 9 5
8 4 1 3 2 6
3 7 2 1 2 3
2 2
9 10 9 10

## Sample Output

1 2 3 4 4 5
16
1 2 1 5 4 5
11
1 1
19

uva10131,

# Question 1: Is Bigger Smarter?

## The Problem

Some people think that the bigger an elephant is, the smarter it is. To disprove this, you want to take the data on a collection of elephants and put as large a subset of this data as possible into a sequence so that the weights are increasing, but the IQ's are decreasing.
The input will consist of data for a bunch of elephants, one elephant per line, terminated by the end-of-file. The data for a particular elephant will consist of a pair of integers: the first representing its size in kilograms and the second representing its IQ in hundredths of IQ points. Both integers are between 1 and 10000. The data will contain information for at most 1000 elephants. Two elephants may have the same weight, the same IQ, or even the same weight and IQ.
Say that the numbers on the i-th data line are W[i] and S[i]. Your program should output a sequence of lines of data; the first line should contain a number n; the remaining n lines should each contain a single positive integer (each one representing an elephant). If these nintegers are aa,..., a[n] then it must be the case that
   W[a] < W[a] < ... < W[a[n]]

and
   S[a] > S[a] > ... > S[a[n]]

In order for the answer to be correct, n should be as large as possible. All inequalities are strict: weights must be strictly increasing, and IQs must be strictly decreasing. There may be many correct outputs for a given input, your program only needs to find one.

## Sample Input

6008 1300
6000 2100
500 2000
1000 4000
1100 3000
6000 2000
8000 1400
6000 1200
2000 1900


## Sample Output

4
4
5
9
7

poj1915,

## Problem:

Knight Moves
 Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 30000K Total Submissions: 14965 Accepted: 6680
Description
Background
Mr Somurolov, fabulous chess-gamer indeed, asserts that no one else but him can move knights from one position to another so fast. Can you beat him?
The Problem
Your task is to write a program to calculate the minimum number of moves needed for a knight to reach one point from another, so that you have the chance to be faster than Somurolov.
For people not familiar with chess, the possible knight moves are shown in Figure 1. Input
The input begins with the number n of scenarios on a single line by itself.
Next follow n scenarios. Each scenario consists of three lines containing integer numbers. The first line specifies the length l of a side of the chess board (4 <= l <= 300). The entire board has size l * l. The second and third line contain pair of integers {0, ..., l-1}*{0, ..., l-1} specifying the starting and ending position of the knight on the board. The integers are separated by a single blank. You can assume that the positions are valid positions on the chess board of that scenario.
Output
For each scenario of the input you have to calculate the minimal amount of knight moves which are necessary to move from the starting point to the ending point. If starting point and ending point are equal,distance is zero. The distance must be written on a single line.
Sample Input
3
8
0 0
7 0
100
0 0
30 50
10
1 1
1 1
Sample Output
5
28
0
Source
TUD Programming Contest 2001, Darmstadt, Germany

### UVa_00439_Knight_Moves.cpp

uva00439, poj2243,

# Knight Moves

A friend of you is doing research on the Traveling Knight Problem (TKP) where you are to find the shortest closed tour of knight moves that visits each square of a given set of n squares on a chessboard exactly once. He thinks that the most difficult part of the problem is determining the smallest number of knight moves between two given squares and that, once you have accomplished this, finding the tour would be easy.
Of course you know that it is vice versa. So you offer him to write a program that solves the "difficult" part.

Your job is to write a program that takes two squares a and b as input and then determines the number of knight moves on a shortest route from a to b.

## Input Specification

The input file will contain one or more test cases. Each test case consists of one line containing two squares separated by one space. A square is a string consisting of a letter (a-h) representing the column and a digit (1-8) representing the row on the chessboard.

## Output Specification

For each test case, print one line saying "To get from xx to yy takes n knight moves.".

## Sample Input

e2 e4
a1 b2
b2 c3
a1 h8
a1 h7
h8 a1
b1 c3
f6 f6

## Sample Output

To get from e2 to e4 takes 2 knight moves.
To get from a1 to b2 takes 4 knight moves.
To get from b2 to c3 takes 2 knight moves.
To get from a1 to h8 takes 6 knight moves.
To get from a1 to h7 takes 5 knight moves.
To get from h8 to a1 takes 6 knight moves.
To get from b1 to c3 takes 1 knight moves.
To get from f6 to f6 takes 0 knight moves.`